How do trees and other vegetation affect urban mesoclimates and microclimates?

Vegetation affects urban mesoclimate and microclimate by intercepting solar radiation, directing air movement, and affecting air temperature.  Microclimate, mesoclimate and macroclimate can be used to describe the climate of a given location. Macroclimate covers hundreds of square miles and parameters such as precipitation levels, temperatures and winds. Mesoclimate covers areas of tens of square miles and describes how conditions vary from the prevailing macroclimate due to the effects of water bodies, topographic features (terrain), and other landscape influences. A microclimate is localized climate in areas consisting of hundreds of square feet and variations of the elevation in tens of feet.  In an urban environment, trees influence how the area surrounding them feels to people by modifying airflow and temperature with shade and uptake/release of moisture. Modifying mesoclimate or microclimate in the urban environment is a tool planners can consider to help conserve energy, provide passive cooling and enhance aesthetics of an urban area.